Understanding the hierarchy concept led an IRI subcommittee in the late 1990s to define and organize an elaborate set of over 200 metrics into a Technology Value Pyramid (TVP). It was one of the most complete and comprehensively laid out set of R&D metrics available. The “Technology Value Pyramid” figure is a high level depiction of the metrics available. The details of this hierarchy of metrics are in Appendix 2 of this chapter. This set of measures was extremely valuable to R&D leaders in selecting appropriate metrics tied to their organization’s needs for learning, improvement and auditing.